Hwiada AbuBaker and Mutamed Amin
Background: Although methods of schistosomiasis transmission are well documented, limited evidence exists on transmission patterns across gender and class. This study aims at joining force to the efforts trying to situate water-related behavior relevant to the transmission of schistosomiasis to its socio-cultural context. It does so by targeting gender variations in relation to knowledge and behavior relevant to the transmission.
Methods: Fifty five boys and girls at basic school aged (8-15) at Habiba basic school at Kamleen Locality were chosen purposively in accordance to the written consent they provided. The study implemented ethnographic methods for collecting data.
Results: Knowledge about the pathological causes of schistosomiasis among both boys and girls was lacking but the clinical manifestation is partially recognized (blood in urine and painful passing of urine), yet children’s explanation of these symptoms interfered with cultural elements in the context of the village and how the villagers relate to their social world in general. Considerable variation in relations to water-contact behavior associated with gender and types of activity conducted by each group were recorded.
Conclusion: One point of departure between boys and girls at school age in relations to the schistosomiasis infection was that boys reflected knowledge about the snail ecology in water; however association of such knowledge to health or schistosomiasis transmission was missing in the case of both categories of informants.
In august 2009 on the field in one West African country during a hydrocele surgery workshop we encountered a 64year old farmer who has had bilateral hydrocele for 20years.He was married with 2children. All other parameters were normal. He had no history of hypertension, diabetes and had not had any surgeries before.
Mario Dervishi*, Aziz Mohamad, Carolina Fonseca, and Alicia Heidenreich
Teratoma is a tumor usually seen in children and adolescents and is composed of a mixture of embryonal and adult tissues derived from all three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. According to the current WHO grading system classification of the tumor consists of mature/benign and immature/malignant, depending on the presence and abundance of immature component [1,2,11,12].
The size and stage correlate to the survival. The microscopic grade of the primary tumor best determines the likelihood of extra-ovarian spread and the grade of the metastases correlate best with the subsequent course. Indeed, a thorough tumor sampling is necessary for accurate grading. Here we report a case of high-grade immature teratoma in an 18-year-old girl.
Jupin Chacko* and Javeed Akhter
Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome is an extremely rare connective tissue disorder with less than 100 reported cases worldwide.The syndrome is known for acroosteolysis of the hands and feet, short stature, developmental defects of bones, teeth and joints,among numerous other findings. This case report presents the first documented instance of lung involvement being the primary presenting feature in this syndrome.
Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) are a diverse group of diseases that prevail in tropical and subtropical conditions in 149 countries, affecting more than 1 billion people. Among the NTDs classified by WHO are listed parasites such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, dracunculiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis and geohelminthiases. The number of people affected by these diseases is higher in regions of greater poverty, and there is a direct relationship between the prevalence of these diseases and the human development index (HDI) .
Testuri M, Daghero H, Rey G, Acosta G, Bernachin J, and Marco M*
Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant genital cancers, with a high mortality rate. Despite decades of research, the survival rate of ovarian cancer patients is largely unchanged, and there is a pressing need for identifying novel therapeutic targets.
Many researchers have suggested that soluble matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have remarkably high expression in ovarian cancer tissues, and they are considered to be related to the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, some studies have discovered that the unbalance between MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are associated with the malignant phenotype of tumors. In spite of this, there is a lack of information about the expression of membrane type –MMPs (without taking into account MT1-MMP) in ovarian cancer.
This report shows (using immunohistochemistry) an increase in the expression of MT3- and MT5-MMPs especially in the most aggressive histological types (comparing with normal and benign tumors), which could suggest a possible biological role in the development of this pathology.
Anwar Rjoop, Kimberley Sanderson, Victoria Booker, Diane Hopper and Ericka Olgaard*
Staffing intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) services can be challenging for the laboratory today. At our academic medical center, staffing levels made it difficult to use blood bank technologists to support ICS procedures. We therefore developed a flexible staffing model utilizing the Laboratory Support Services (LSS) personnel to provide 24/7 ICS service. In an era with a laboratory technologist shortage and when laboratories must continuously demonstrate value to the hospital, using this group of laboratory employees can be a way to deliver consistent and timely ICS service. When planning for staffing it is important to interact with surgical services on a regular basis as surgical practices change.
My research interest focuses on infectious diseases involving protozoan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum that are the reason for infections classified as neglected tropical diseases. The parasitic diseases are one of the reasons for majorsignificant global economic, environmental, and public health impacts.
Mitiku Bajiro*, Shewatateck Gedamu, Niguse Hamba, and YonasAlemu
Background: Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Soil transmitted helminthes infections are among the major public health problems especially in Sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. However, little is known about the distribution of these infections in area where there is risk factors for infection, especially schools at nearby rivers. Therefore objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, infection intensity and associated risk factors among two primary school children at nearby rivers of Jimma town.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among two primary school children aged from 6 to 19 years in Jimma town from March to April/15 2016. For diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and soil transmitted helminthes (STHs), a single stool sample was obtained from each child and processed using single Kato Katz and examined using light microscope. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information of the school children participated in the study and variables used for risk factors assessments. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with S. mansoni and STHs infections.
Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal helminthes infection with S. mansoni and STHs was 50.64 %( 118/233). The prevalence of S. mansoni among school children of the two primary schools was 26.6 %( 62/233) with the prevalence of 29.2% in males and 23.3% in females. The prevalence of T. trichuira, A. lumbricoides and hookworms among the school children in Jimma town was 22.3%, 20.2% and 3.4% respectively. Majority of the infection intensity for both S. mansoni and STHs were classified as low.
Water contact habits has significantly associated with S. mansoni infection where as finger trimming status, frequency of handing washing habit before meal and after toilet were significantly associated with, A. lumbricoides and T. trichuira infections (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal helminthes infection with S. mansoni and STHs were 50.64 %; with the prevalence of S. mansoni, T. trichuira, A. lumbricoides and hookworms were 26.6%, 22.3%, 20.2% and 3.4% among the school children in the two schools. Majority of the infection intensity for both S. mansoni and STHs were classified as low. The school children were at moderate risk of infection with S. mansoni and STHs based on WHO 2012 prevalence classification in which once a year MDA is required for STHs and biannual MDA for S. mansoni. Health information regarding the transmission and prevention of S. mansoni and STHs should be given for school age children in the area.
Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Cyrus Emir Alavi, Siamak Rimaz, Fereshteh Mohamadi, Siamak Geranmayeh, and Zakiyeh Jafaryparvar*
Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumor (TNET) is rare and its incidence rate is approximately 2–5%. Carcinoid tumor of thymus with Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare co-morbid condition. We report a 19-year-old girl with CS who had8-months history of 10-15 kg weight gain, acne on face and back of the hands, menstrual irregularity, depression, fatigue and fatigability, moon faces, buffalo hump, truncal obesity and cutaneous striae. Initial laboratory tests revealed a serum cortisol level of 78 µg/DL, morning serum cortisol of 130 µg/DL, the ACTH level of 440 pg/ml and a 24 hour urinary free cortisol level of 11000µg/24 hours. Thorax computed tomography showed a heterogeneous well defined mass measuring about 18×15 mm in the anterior compartment of the mediastinum. An extended thymectomy was performed by a median sternotomy. Report of pathologist was “Well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm (Typical carcinoid tumor of thymus, grade 1) without lymphatic and vascular invasion”.
Attapon Cheepsattayakorn* and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Ramazzini first described this disease, namely “Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis” and then was changed according to the types of exposed dust. No reliable figures on the silica-inhalation exposed individuals are officially documented. How silica particles stimulate pulmonary response and the exact path physiology of silicosis are still not known and urgently require further research. Nevertheless, many researchers hypothesized that pulmonary alveolar macrophages play a major role by secreting fibroblast-stimulating factor and re-ingesting these ingested silica particles by the pulmonary alveolar macrophage with progressive magnification. Finally, ending up of the death of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages and the development of pulmonary fibrosis appear. Various mediators, such as CTGF, FBRS, FGF2/bFGF, and TNFa play a major role in the development of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A hypothesis of silicosis-associated abnormal immunoglobulins has been postulated. In conclusion, novel studies on pathogenesis and biomarkers of silicosis are urgently needed for precise prevention and control of this silently threaten disease of the world.
Letter to Editor
AmalR Nimir*, and Anne Jamaludin
Prevention Is Better Than Cure; that's what we have always been told.
Let's imagine living in the 14th century for a minute. You wake up in a flea-ridden bed after a restless night of sleep, interrupted by the alarm clock of the century (the nearest rooster).
Nicholas J. Kavana*
Spirometra is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm of Canidae and Felidae  with worldwide distribution. This cestode is of medical importance as its larvae, the plerocercoid can infect humans causing sparganosis. Sparganosis is endemic in many countries with the majority of cases reported from Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Eastern Africa [2-6] The life-cycle of Spirometra sp. is dependent of two types of intermediate hosts.
Eric C. Vonderheid*, J. Steve Hou, and Robert Bigler
Objectives: Determine flow criteria corresponding to LN4 histopathologic grade used for clinical staging of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL).
Materials and Methods: Flow cytometry using primarily a panel of single antibodies was performed on 78 excised lymph nodes (LNs) from 72 patients with CTCL. Correlation with histopathologic grade was available for 64 specimens. Fifty-two LNs obtained at initial staging were used for prognostic correlations. Seventeen additional LNs were studied by fine needle aspiration (FNA).